Genomic instability plays a significant role in lung cancer. Although substantial research has been conducted using both clinical and theoretical studies, it is still a hotly debated issue to whether genomic instability is necessary or whether genomic instability precedes oncogenes activation and tumor suppressor genes inactivation for lung cancer. In response to this issue, we come up with a mathematical model incorporating effects of genomic instability to investigate the genomic instability pathway of human lung cancer. The presented model are applied to match the incidence rate data of lung cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of the atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki and Hiroshima and the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registry in the United States. Model results suggest that genomic instability is necessary in the tumorigenesis of lung cancer, and genomic instability has no significant impact on the net proliferation rate of cells by statistical criteria. By comparing the results of the LSS data to those of the SEER data, we conclude that the genomic instability pathway exhibits a sensitivity to radiation exposure, more intensive in male patients.