Mathematical model to optimize solar spectrum allocation for a Stirling engine-based concentrated photovoltaic thermal system

Calvin Fu Yuan Low, Ping Yi Chan, Wen Shan Tan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


Incorporating a Stirling engine into a concentrated photovoltaic thermal system (CPVT) with spectral beam splitting converts wasted photovoltaic panel energy into electricity, boosting efficiency. However, complex Stirling engine development slows system performance estimation, which explains the scarce studies on the Stirling engine-based CPVT spectrum allocation range. Furthermore, the literature shows inconsistent remarks on low or high-energy photon allocation to a thermal system and uncertainty of solar irradiance variation effect on spectrum allocation. A generic methodology is presented for determining optimal spectrum allocation for a Stirling engine-based CPVT system with a dichroic filter. The analysis in this work shows that considering non-absorption and thermalization losses improves performance by 13.2 % compared to solely accounting for non-absorption loss in beam splitting. Additionally, a shift of up to 40 nm in the optimal spectrum allocation range is observed with a daily spectral irradiance source compared to the AM1.5D source. The PV mathematical model is validated with an average error of 8.9 %, and the Stirling engine model with an error of 5.2 %. Through this study, future researchers can determine an optimal spectrum allocation range for Stirling engine-based CPVT that maximizes PV performance based on a specified location with the proposed generalized CPVT model.

Original languageEnglish
Article number120067
Number of pages16
JournalRenewable Energy
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Concentrated photovoltaic thermal
  • Daily spectral irradiance
  • Dichroic filter
  • Spectral beam splitting
  • Stirling engine

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