Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from an infectious disease in Ethiopia, killing more than 30 thousand people every year. This study aimed to determine whether the rates of poor TB treatment outcome varied geographically across Ethiopia at district and zone levels and whether such variability was associated with socioeconomic, behavioural, health care access, or climatic conditions. Methods: A geospatial analysis was conducted using national TB data reported to the health management information system (HMIS), for the period 2015-2017. The prevalence of poor TB treatment outcomes was calculated by dividing the sum of treatment failure, death and loss to follow-up by the total number of TB patients. Binomial logistic regression models were computed and a spatial analysis was performed using a Bayesian framework. Estimates of parameters were generated using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. Geographic clustering was assessed using the Getis-Ord Gistatistic, and global and local Moran's I statistics. Results: A total of 223,244 TB patients were reported from 722 districts in Ethiopia during the study period. Of these, 63,556 (28.5%) were cured, 139,633 (62.4%) completed treatment, 6716 (3.0%) died, 1459 (0.7%) had treatment failure, and 12,200 (5.5%) were lost to follow-up. The overall prevalence of a poor TB treatment outcome was 9.0% (range, 1-58%). Hot-spots and clustering of poor TB treatment outcomes were detected in districts near the international borders in Afar, Gambelia, and Somali regions and cold spots were detected in Oromia and Amhara regions. Spatial clustering of poor TB treatment outcomes was positively associated with the proportion of the population with low wealth index (OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 1.0, 1.01), the proportion of the population with poor knowledge about TB (OR: 1.02; 95%CI: 1.01, 1.03), and higher annual mean temperature per degree Celsius (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.21). Conclusions: This study showed significant spatial variation in poor TB treatment outcomes in Ethiopia that was related to underlying socioeconomic status, knowledge about TB, and climatic conditions. Clinical and public health interventions should be targeted in hot spot areas to reduce poor TB treatment outcomes and to achieve the national End-TB Strategy targets.
- Spatial patterns
- Treatment outcomes