Mapping tissue sodium concentration in the human brain: a comparison of MR sequences at 9.4 Tesla

Sandro Romanzetti, Christian C. Mirkes, Daniel P. Fiege, Avdo Celik, Jörg Felder, N. Jon Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Sodium is the second most abundant MR-active nucleus in the human body and is of fundamental importance for the function of cells. Previous studies have shown that many pathophysiological conditions induce an increase of the average tissue sodium concentration. To date, several MR sequences have been used to measure sodium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and suitability of five different MR sequences for quantitative sodium imaging on a whole-body 9.4. Tesla MR scanner. Numerical simulations, phantom experiments and in vivo imaging on healthy subjects were carried out. The results demonstrate that, of these five sequences, the Twisted Projection Imaging sequence is optimal for quantitative sodium imaging, as it combines a number of features which are particularly relevant in order to obtain high quality quantitative images of sodium. These include: ultra-short echo times, efficient k-space sampling, and robustness against off-resonance effects. Mapping of sodium in the human brain is a technique not yet fully explored in neuroscience. Ultra-high field sodium MRI may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of neurological disorders, and may help to develop new and disease-specific biomarkers for the early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention before irreversible brain damage has taken place.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44-53
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Concentration
  • Map
  • MRI
  • Sodium
  • UTE

Cite this