Mapping the 12-item World Health Organization disability assessment schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) onto the assessment of quality of life (AQoL)-4D utilities

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Purpose: The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is a widely used disability-specific outcome measure. This study develops mapping algorithms to estimate Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL)-4D utilities based on the WHODAS 2.0 responses to facilitate economic evaluation. Methods: The study sample comprises people with disability or long-term conditions (n = 3376) from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Traditional regression techniques (i.e., Ordinary Least Square regression, Robust MM regression, Generalised Linear Model and Betamix Regression) and machine learning techniques (i.e., Lasso regression, Boosted regression, Supported vector regression) were used. Five-fold internal cross-validation was performed. Model performance was assessed using a series of goodness-of-fit measures. Results: The robust MM estimator produced the preferred mapping algorithm for the overall sample with the smallest mean absolute error in cross-validation (MAE = 0.1325). Different methods performed differently for different disability subgroups, with the subgroup with profound or severe restrictions having the highest MAE across all methods and models. Conclusion: The developed mapping algorithm enables cost-utility analyses of interventions for people with disability where the WHODAS 2.0 has been collected. Mapping algorithms developed from different methods should be considered in sensitivity analyses in economic evaluations.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
JournalQuality of Life Research
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023


  • AQoL-4D
  • Disability
  • Mapping
  • Quality of life
  • Utility

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