The immune system can be induced to respond against cancer with some success reported in clinical trials using a range of approaches including vaccines and antibodies. In addition to these approaches, cell based therapies are demonstrating much promise as potential therapies for cancer. In cell therapies autologous patient leukocytes are isolated and manipulated in vitro before transfer back to the patient in adoptive transfer regimens. The majority of approaches utilize conventional T cells or dendritic cells, but a wide variety of other types of leukocytes exist which can possess anti-cancer activity. In this review, we present a brief overview of T cell adoptive cell transfer followed by a review of approaches using alternate lymphocyte subsets and other leukocytes including neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils. ? 2014 Elsevier Ltd.