Management of Osteoporosis, Fracture and Falls in People with Multiple Sclerosis: Systematic Review of Guidelines

Lisa Grech, Kiran Laurence, Peter R. Ebeling, Marc Sim, Ayse Zengin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review


People with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a higher prevalence of osteoporosis, falls and fractures. Guidelines for MS populations targeting the management of osteoporosis, fracture and falls risk may help reduce the burden of musculoskeletal disease in this population. We aimed to systematically review current guidelines regarding osteoporosis prevention, screening, diagnosis and management in people with MS. In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review of scientific databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase and Scopus) was performed (n = 208). In addition, websites from MS organisations and societies were screened for clinical guidelines (n = 28). Following duplicate removal, screening and exclusions (n = 230), in total six guidelines were included in this review. Three of the identified guidelines were specific to managing osteoporosis in MS, while two linked vitamin D to bone health and one was focused on the effect of acute glucocorticoid use for MS exacerbations on bone health. All guidelines were found to contain inadequate recommendations for osteoporosis screening, management and treatment in people with MS given the evidence of higher prevalence of osteoporosis at an earlier age and compounding risk factors in this population. Early diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in people with MS is necessary as fractures lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Development of structured clinical guidelines directed at specific healthcare services will ensure screening, appropriate management, and care of bone health in people with MS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)201-209
Number of pages9
JournalCalcified Tissue International
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Bone mineral density
  • Fall
  • Fracture
  • Guideline
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Osteoporosis

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