Peritonitis and exit-site infections remain the most important limitations to the delivery of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Contamination of the peritoneum, from endogenous or exogenous sources, is responsible for most peritonitis episodes. Patients usually present with a cloudy bag, although other causes should be distinguished. Clinical suspicion of peritonitis should be followed rapidly by microbiological examination and empirical treatment. Microbiological confirmation allows for subsequent treatment based on sensitivities. Other interventions such as catheter removal may be appropriate in some patients. Exit-site infections should also be identified and treated early. Peritonitis may be further prevented by adequate exit-site care, hygienic methods, and techniques to minimise early contamination of the exit site. Mupirocin may also have a role in preventing infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
- Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
- Exit site