Preterm birth (delivery prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation) is the leading cause of perinatal deaths worldwide. Preterm infants are born when their hearts are structurally and functionally immature; as a result, maladaptive cardiac remodelling occurs in the neonatal period which may lead to cardiac dysfunction later in life. Hypotension is a common co-morbidity of preterm birth in the neonatal period; however, hypertension often manifests in adulthood. Adults born preterm exhibit altered heart growth, which may in part be linked to their elevation in blood pressure. Clinical interventions used to facilitate lung function in preterm infants, including antenatal glucocorticoids and mechanical ventilation, may also impact cardiac growth early in life, with lifelong implications for cardiac structure and function.