Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are nonconventional T lymphocytes that recognize bacterial metabolites presented by MR1. Whereas gut bacterial translocation and the loss/dysfunction of peripheral MAIT cells in HIV infection is well described, MAIT cells in nonhuman primate models are poorly characterized.We generated a pigtail macaque (PTM)-specific MR1 tetramer and characterized MAIT cells in serial samples from naive and SIV- or simian HIV-infected PTM. Although PTM MAIT cells generally resemble the phenotype and transcriptional profile of human MAIT cells, they exhibited uniquely low expression of the gut-homing marker α4β7 and were not enriched at the gut mucosa. PTM MAIT cells responded to SIV/simian HIV infection by proliferating and upregulating α4β7, coinciding with increased MAIT cell frequency in the rectum. By 36 wk of infection, PTM MAIT cells were activated and exhibited a loss of Tbet expression but were not depleted as in HIV infection. Our data suggest the following: 1) MAIT cell activation and exhaustion is uncoupled from the hallmark depletion of MAIT cells during HIV infection; and 2) the lack of PTM MAIT cell enrichment at the gut mucosa may prevent depletion during chronic infection, providing a model to assess potential immunotherapeutic approaches to modify MAIT cell trafficking during HIV infection.