Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) facilitates multiple aspects of inflammatory arthritis, the pathogenesis of which has been significantly linked to the activity of neutrophils. The effects of MIF on neutrophil recruitment are unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the contribution of MIF to the regulation of neutrophil chemotactic responses. METHODS: K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis was induced in wild-type (WT), MIF(-/-) , and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1; CCL2)-deficient mice as well as in WT mice treated with monoclonal antibodies to cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (anti-KC). Leukocyte trafficking in vivo was examined using intravital microscopy, and neutrophil function in vitro was examined using migration chambers and assessment of MAP kinase activation.