Macro- and micro-vascular complications and their determinants among people with type 2 diabetes in Bangladesh

Afsana Afroz, Wen Zhang, Andre Jin Wei Loh, Darryl Xing Jie Lee, Baki Billah

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To identify the prevalence of micro- and macro-vascular complications and their associated factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh. Methods: This retrospective and cross-sectional study was conducted in six diabetes hospitals, covered urban and rural population. From April to September in 2017, a total of 1253 type 2 diabetes patients aged ≥18 years were recruited. Participants answered a pre-tested electronic questionnaire, and their medical records were reviewed for documented diabetes complications. Results: Mean age was 55.1 (±12.6) years. Among macrovascular complications, the prevalence of coronary artery disease was found to be 30.5%, 10.1% for stroke and 12.0% for diabetic foot. Among microvascular complications, nephropathy was prevalent among 34.2%, retinopathy among 25.1% and neuropathy among 5.8% of patients. Risk factors found to be associated with one or more of the complications were female gender, higher age, lower education level, an urban area of residence, higher household income, smoking, physical inactivity, hypertension, poor glycaemic control, poor adherence to treatment, longer duration of diabetes, and insulin use. Conclusion: Diabetes complications are highly prevalent among type 2 diabetes population in Bangladesh. Prevention strategies should focus on increasing physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation, and more strict control of hypertension and glycaemic level.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2939-2946
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019


  • Bangladesh
  • Complications
  • Risk factors
  • Type 2 diabetes

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