The concept that myeloablation to open space was a prerequisite for marrow stem cell engraftment has been challenged by studies showing high rates of engraftment in nonmyeloablated mice (Stewart et al, Blood 81:2566, 1993; Quesenberry et al, Blood Cells 20:97, 1994; Bracher at el, Blood Cells 5:237, 1979; Saxe et el, Exp Hematol 12:277, 1984; and Wu et al, Exp Hematol 21:251, 1993). However, relatively large numbers of marrow cells were necessary to achieve high long-term donor percentages, We have demonstrated, using a BALB/c male/female marrow transplant model and detecting male DNA in host tissues by Southern blot or fluorescent in situ hybridization, that exposure to doses of irradiation that cause minimal myeloablation (50 to 100 cGy) leads to very high levels of donor chimerism, such that relatively small numbers of marrow cells (10 to 40 million) can give donor chimerism in the 40% to 100% range. Studies of radiation sensitivity of long-term engrafting cells have shown that 100 cGy, although not myelotoxic, is stem cell toxic, and indicate that the final host:donor ratios are determined by competition between host and donor stem cells. These data indicate that low levels of irradiation should be an effective approach to nontoxic marrow transplantation in gene therapy or in attempts to create allochimerism to treat such diseases as cancer, sickle cell anemia, or thalassemia.
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - 15 May 1998|