Inflammasomes are large innate cytoplasmic complexes that play a major role in promoting inflammation in the lung in response to a range of environmental and infectious stimuli. Inflammasomes are critical for driving acute innate immune responses that resolve infection and maintain tissue homeostasis. However, dysregulated or excessive inflammasome activation can be detrimental. Here, we discuss the plethora of recent data from clinical studies and small animal disease models that implicate excessive inflammasome responses in the pathogenesis of a number of acute and chronic respiratory inflammatory diseases. Understanding of the role of inflammasomes in lung disease is of great therapeutic interest.