Results are presented of high-resolution luminescence studies from individual dislocations and related defects in ZnSe and InP performed in a transmission electron microscope. In the case of ZnSe unusual luminescence bands (Y at 2.60 eV and S at 2.52 eV) originally observed in photoluminescence studies are attributed to dislocations. In some instances, complete quenching of the excitonic transitions was observed to correlate with the presence of Y emission from complex dislocation tangles. In the case of individual screw dislocations this quenching of the exciton luminescence was found to be variable; for example reduction of the exciton signal was not always observed. For InP, donor-exciton-related transitions were quenched at individual screw dislocations. Donor-acceptor pair/free-to-bound and deep level (band C) transitions were unaffected. For the case of InP, unlike ZnSe, no dislocation-related luminescence was observed within the system detection limit (0.7-4.0 eV).