### Abstract

This paper presents the first non-trivial lower bounds for the total number of bends in 3-D orthogonal graph drawings with vertices represented by points. In particular, we prove lower bounds for the number of bends in 3-D orthogonal drawings of complete simple graphs and multigraphs, which are tight in most cases. These result are used as the basis for the construction of infinite classes of c-connected simple graphs, multigraphs, and pseudographs (2 < c < 6) of maximum degree A (3 < A < 6), with lower bounds on the total number of bends for all members of the class. We also present lower bounds for the number of bends in general position 3-D orthogonal graph drawings. These results have significant ramifications for the '2-bends problem’, which is one of the most important open problems in the field.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | Graph Algorithms and Applications 4 |

Publisher | World Scientific Publishing |

Pages | 33-78 |

Number of pages | 46 |

ISBN (Electronic) | 9789812773296 |

ISBN (Print) | 9812568441, 9789812568441 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 1 Jan 2006 |

Externally published | Yes |

## Cite this

*Graph Algorithms and Applications 4*(pp. 33-78). World Scientific Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812773296_0002