In this work, the effect of particle size on alkali pretreatment of the almond shell was evaluated for recovery of hemicellulose. Further, endoxylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus was immobilized on Fe-based magnetic nanoparticles to enable reuse of enzyme. Reduction in particle size significantly influences the recovery of hemicellulose as particle size below 120 μm enable recovery of 97% available hemicellulose in 1 h at 121 °C with 2 M alkali. The enzyme could retain 93.3% of enzymatic activity upon immobilization onto magnetic support using glutaraldehyde (25 mM) and was at par with the free enzyme in terms of pH and temperature profile. The measurement of reaction kinetics (Km and Vmax) indicates similar values for free and immobilized enzyme. The structural and morphological analysis indicates presence near spherical magnetic core and successful cross-linking of the enzyme without alteration of the magnetic core. The immobilized enzyme was able to hydrolyze hemicellulose to produce XOS, the yield equivalent to 67.4% of that obtained using free enzyme at 50 °C. The comparison of XOS production ability at 50 and 60 °C, suggests that the immobilized enzyme retains activity as similar yield was obtained at both temperatures, whereas, the yield for free enzyme decreases significantly. The XOS yield on recycling of immobilized enzyme for three successive cycles was found to reduce to 41% of the initial cycle. However, in all cycles of enzymatic hydrolysis, the percentage of xylobiose was found to be above 90%.
- Alkaline pretreatment
- Magnetic nanoparticles