Looking beyond people, equipment and environment: is a systems theory model of accident causation required to understand injuries and near misses during outdoor activities?

Natassia Goode, Paul M. Salmon, Michael G. Lenné, Caroline F. Finch

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperResearch

6 Citations (Scopus)


The National Incident Database (NID) provides a standardised, industry-wide, approach to incident reporting for the outdoor sector in New Zealand (NZ). The aim of this study was to determine whether the NID contributing factor categories (i.e. people, equipment and environment) are sufficient for classifying the data that has been collected on accident causation by the NID, or whether a systems theory framework is required. A sample of injury and near miss reports (n = 228) were extracted from the NID and analysed. All contributing factors identified were classified according to Rasmussen's (1997) Risk Management Framework (RRMF), which was adapted to describe the “led outdoor activity system”. In total, 58 different contributing factor categories were identified across the 228 incidents. Factors were classified across all levels of the framework, which indicates that the NID categories are inadequate. The findings also demonstrate that RRMF is appropriate for classifying the contributing factors involved in less severe injuries and near misses that do not have in-depth investigations associated with them.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProcedia Manufacturing
Subtitle of host publication6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the Affiliated Conferences, AHFE 2015
EditorsTareq Ahram, Waldemar Karwowski, Dylan Schmorrow
Place of PublicationAmsterdam Netherlands
Number of pages7
ISBN (Print)9781510815377
Publication statusPublished - 2015
EventInternational Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics 2015 - Las Vegas NV USA, Las Vegas, United States of America
Duration: 26 Jul 201530 Jul 2015
Conference number: 6th

Publication series

NameProcedia Manufacturing
ISSN (Print)2351-9789


ConferenceInternational Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics 2015
Abbreviated titleAHFE 2015
Country/TerritoryUnited States of America
CityLas Vegas
Internet address


  • Incident reporting
  • Systems thinking
  • Taxonomies

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