Longitudinal integrated clerkships for medical students

An innovation adopted by medical schools in Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United States

Thomas E. Norris, Douglas C. Schaad, Dawn DeWitt, Barbara Ogur, D. Daniel Hunt, Blackman Jim Blackman, David Campbell, Ian Couper, Diann Eley, Kathryn Joan Fraser, Gwen Halaas, Lori Hansen, David Hirsh, J. Nicky Hudson, Daniel Hunt, Barry Linger, Campbell Murdoch, Thomas Norris, Jeff Pocock, Ann Poncelet & 3 others Roger Schauer, Paul S Worley, Tim Zmijowskyj

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

136 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

PURPOSE: Integrated clinical clerkships represent a relatively new and innovative approach to medical education that uses continuity as an organizing principle, thus increasing patient-centeredness and learner-centeredness. Medical schools are offering longitudinal integrated clinical clerkships in increasing numbers. This report collates the experiences of medical schools that use longitudinal integrated clerkships for medical student education in order to establish a clearer characterization of these experiences and summarize outcome data, when possible. METHOD: The authors sent an e-mail survey with open text responses to 17 medical schools with known longitudinal integrated clerkships. RESULTS: Sixteen schools in four countries on three continents responded to the survey. Fifteen institutions have active longitudinal integrated clerkships in place. Two programs began before 1995, but the others are newer. More than 2,700 students completed longitudinal integrated clerkships in these schools. The median clerkship length is 40 weeks, and in 15 of the schools, the core clinical content was in medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics-gynecology. Eleven schools reported supportive student responses to the programs. No differences were noted in nationally normed exam scores between program participants and those in the traditional clerkships. Limited outcomes data suggest that students who participate in these programs are more likely to enter primary care careers. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents the increasing use of longitudinal integrated clerkships and provides initial insights for institutions that may wish to develop similar clinical programs. Further study will be needed to assess the long-term impact of these programs on medical education and workforce initiatives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)902-907
Number of pages6
JournalAcademic Medicine
Volume84
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

Cite this

Norris, Thomas E. ; Schaad, Douglas C. ; DeWitt, Dawn ; Ogur, Barbara ; Hunt, D. Daniel ; Jim Blackman, Blackman ; Campbell, David ; Couper, Ian ; Eley, Diann ; Fraser, Kathryn Joan ; Halaas, Gwen ; Hansen, Lori ; Hirsh, David ; Hudson, J. Nicky ; Hunt, Daniel ; Linger, Barry ; Murdoch, Campbell ; Norris, Thomas ; Pocock, Jeff ; Poncelet, Ann ; Schauer, Roger ; Worley, Paul S ; Zmijowskyj, Tim. / Longitudinal integrated clerkships for medical students : An innovation adopted by medical schools in Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United States. In: Academic Medicine. 2009 ; Vol. 84, No. 7. pp. 902-907.
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abstract = "PURPOSE: Integrated clinical clerkships represent a relatively new and innovative approach to medical education that uses continuity as an organizing principle, thus increasing patient-centeredness and learner-centeredness. Medical schools are offering longitudinal integrated clinical clerkships in increasing numbers. This report collates the experiences of medical schools that use longitudinal integrated clerkships for medical student education in order to establish a clearer characterization of these experiences and summarize outcome data, when possible. METHOD: The authors sent an e-mail survey with open text responses to 17 medical schools with known longitudinal integrated clerkships. RESULTS: Sixteen schools in four countries on three continents responded to the survey. Fifteen institutions have active longitudinal integrated clerkships in place. Two programs began before 1995, but the others are newer. More than 2,700 students completed longitudinal integrated clerkships in these schools. The median clerkship length is 40 weeks, and in 15 of the schools, the core clinical content was in medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics-gynecology. Eleven schools reported supportive student responses to the programs. No differences were noted in nationally normed exam scores between program participants and those in the traditional clerkships. Limited outcomes data suggest that students who participate in these programs are more likely to enter primary care careers. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents the increasing use of longitudinal integrated clerkships and provides initial insights for institutions that may wish to develop similar clinical programs. Further study will be needed to assess the long-term impact of these programs on medical education and workforce initiatives.",
author = "Norris, {Thomas E.} and Schaad, {Douglas C.} and Dawn DeWitt and Barbara Ogur and Hunt, {D. Daniel} and {Jim Blackman}, Blackman and David Campbell and Ian Couper and Diann Eley and Fraser, {Kathryn Joan} and Gwen Halaas and Lori Hansen and David Hirsh and Hudson, {J. Nicky} and Daniel Hunt and Barry Linger and Campbell Murdoch and Thomas Norris and Jeff Pocock and Ann Poncelet and Roger Schauer and Worley, {Paul S} and Tim Zmijowskyj",
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Norris, TE, Schaad, DC, DeWitt, D, Ogur, B, Hunt, DD, Jim Blackman, B, Campbell, D, Couper, I, Eley, D, Fraser, KJ, Halaas, G, Hansen, L, Hirsh, D, Hudson, JN, Hunt, D, Linger, B, Murdoch, C, Norris, T, Pocock, J, Poncelet, A, Schauer, R, Worley, PS & Zmijowskyj, T 2009, 'Longitudinal integrated clerkships for medical students: An innovation adopted by medical schools in Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United States', Academic Medicine, vol. 84, no. 7, pp. 902-907. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181a85776

Longitudinal integrated clerkships for medical students : An innovation adopted by medical schools in Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United States. / Norris, Thomas E.; Schaad, Douglas C.; DeWitt, Dawn; Ogur, Barbara; Hunt, D. Daniel; Jim Blackman, Blackman; Campbell, David; Couper, Ian; Eley, Diann; Fraser, Kathryn Joan; Halaas, Gwen; Hansen, Lori; Hirsh, David; Hudson, J. Nicky; Hunt, Daniel; Linger, Barry; Murdoch, Campbell; Norris, Thomas; Pocock, Jeff; Poncelet, Ann; Schauer, Roger; Worley, Paul S; Zmijowskyj, Tim.

In: Academic Medicine, Vol. 84, No. 7, 2009, p. 902-907.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Longitudinal integrated clerkships for medical students

T2 - An innovation adopted by medical schools in Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United States

AU - Norris, Thomas E.

AU - Schaad, Douglas C.

AU - DeWitt, Dawn

AU - Ogur, Barbara

AU - Hunt, D. Daniel

AU - Jim Blackman, Blackman

AU - Campbell, David

AU - Couper, Ian

AU - Eley, Diann

AU - Fraser, Kathryn Joan

AU - Halaas, Gwen

AU - Hansen, Lori

AU - Hirsh, David

AU - Hudson, J. Nicky

AU - Hunt, Daniel

AU - Linger, Barry

AU - Murdoch, Campbell

AU - Norris, Thomas

AU - Pocock, Jeff

AU - Poncelet, Ann

AU - Schauer, Roger

AU - Worley, Paul S

AU - Zmijowskyj, Tim

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - PURPOSE: Integrated clinical clerkships represent a relatively new and innovative approach to medical education that uses continuity as an organizing principle, thus increasing patient-centeredness and learner-centeredness. Medical schools are offering longitudinal integrated clinical clerkships in increasing numbers. This report collates the experiences of medical schools that use longitudinal integrated clerkships for medical student education in order to establish a clearer characterization of these experiences and summarize outcome data, when possible. METHOD: The authors sent an e-mail survey with open text responses to 17 medical schools with known longitudinal integrated clerkships. RESULTS: Sixteen schools in four countries on three continents responded to the survey. Fifteen institutions have active longitudinal integrated clerkships in place. Two programs began before 1995, but the others are newer. More than 2,700 students completed longitudinal integrated clerkships in these schools. The median clerkship length is 40 weeks, and in 15 of the schools, the core clinical content was in medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics-gynecology. Eleven schools reported supportive student responses to the programs. No differences were noted in nationally normed exam scores between program participants and those in the traditional clerkships. Limited outcomes data suggest that students who participate in these programs are more likely to enter primary care careers. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents the increasing use of longitudinal integrated clerkships and provides initial insights for institutions that may wish to develop similar clinical programs. Further study will be needed to assess the long-term impact of these programs on medical education and workforce initiatives.

AB - PURPOSE: Integrated clinical clerkships represent a relatively new and innovative approach to medical education that uses continuity as an organizing principle, thus increasing patient-centeredness and learner-centeredness. Medical schools are offering longitudinal integrated clinical clerkships in increasing numbers. This report collates the experiences of medical schools that use longitudinal integrated clerkships for medical student education in order to establish a clearer characterization of these experiences and summarize outcome data, when possible. METHOD: The authors sent an e-mail survey with open text responses to 17 medical schools with known longitudinal integrated clerkships. RESULTS: Sixteen schools in four countries on three continents responded to the survey. Fifteen institutions have active longitudinal integrated clerkships in place. Two programs began before 1995, but the others are newer. More than 2,700 students completed longitudinal integrated clerkships in these schools. The median clerkship length is 40 weeks, and in 15 of the schools, the core clinical content was in medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics-gynecology. Eleven schools reported supportive student responses to the programs. No differences were noted in nationally normed exam scores between program participants and those in the traditional clerkships. Limited outcomes data suggest that students who participate in these programs are more likely to enter primary care careers. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents the increasing use of longitudinal integrated clerkships and provides initial insights for institutions that may wish to develop similar clinical programs. Further study will be needed to assess the long-term impact of these programs on medical education and workforce initiatives.

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