Longitudinal Associations of Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, Physical Activity, and Knee Pain and Dysfunction with Muscle Loss in Community-dwelling Older Adults

Saliu Balogun, Dawn Aitken, Tania Winzenberg, Karen Wills, David Scott, Michele Callisaya, Graeme Jones

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5 Citations (Scopus)


Aim To describe the associations of between-person and within-person variability in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), physical activity (PA), and knee pain and dysfunction with muscle mass, strength, and muscle quality over 10 years in community-dwelling older adults. Method Participants (N = 1033; 51% women; mean age 63 ± 7.4 years) were measured at baseline, 2.5, 5, and 10 years. Lower limb lean mass (LLM) was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, lower limb muscle strength (LMS) using a dynamometer, and lower limb muscle quality (LMQ) calculated as LMS/LLM. Knee pain and dysfunction were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index. PA was measured using pedometers. Linear-mixed effect regression models, with adjustment for confounders, were used to estimate the association of within-person and between-person variability in PA, 25(OH)D, and WOMAC scores with muscle mass, strength, and muscle quality. Results Both between-person and within-person increases in PA were associated with LLM, LMS, and LMQ (all P < 0.05). Within-person and between-person increases in knee pain and dysfunction were associated with LLS and LMQ, but not with LLM (all P < 0.05). Between-person effects showed that higher average 25(OH)D was associated with a higher 10-year average LLM, LMS, and LMQ (all P < 0.05), whereas within-person increases in average 25(OH)D were associated with a higher LMS and LMQ, but not with LLM. Conclusions Variability in 25(OH)D, pain, and dysfunction within an individual over time is related to muscle changes in that individual. Increasing one's own PA level further increases muscle mass, strength, and quality supporting the clinical recommendation of promoting PA to reduce age-related muscle loss.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)526-531
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 14 Mar 2018


  • Body composition
  • Pain
  • Physical activity
  • Vitamin D

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