Long-term outcomes of major trauma patients with concussion

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Introduction: Concussion may be sustained in the setting of injuries to multiple body regions and persistent effects of concussion may impact recovery. This project aimed to evaluate the association between concussion and 6-month and 12-month functional outcomes in survivors after major trauma. Methods: This was a registry-based cohort study that included adult patients with major trauma who presented to hospital between 01 Jan 2008 and 31 Dec 2017 and survived to hospital discharge. We excluded patients presenting with a Glasgow Coma Scale score <13 and those diagnosed with other intracranial injuries. Additionally, from the non-concussed group, patients with fractured skull and/or face were excluded, with the assumption that such patients may have had undiagnosed concussion. A good recovery was considered for Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) scores of 7 or 8. In addition, we assessed for patient reported anxiety and/or depression measured using the 3-level EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire. A modified mixed effects Poisson models with random intercepts for participant was used to assess the association between concussion and outcome. Results: There were 28,161 eligible patients and 12,822 met inclusion criteria. Concussion was diagnosed in 1860 patients (14.5%; 95%CI: 13.9–15.1). There was no association between concussion and good recovery at 12 months (aRR 1.05 (95%CI: 0.99–1.11). There was no association between concussion and anxiety and/or depression at 12 months (aRR 1.03; 95%CI: 0.99–1.07). Conclusions: Concussion was sustained among 14.5% of included patients in the setting of major trauma but not associated with longer-term adverse outcomes using GOS-E. Concussed patients did not report differential rates of anxiety and/or depression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)75-81
Number of pages7
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • Brain concussion
  • Brain injuries, Traumatic
  • Glasgow outcome scale
  • Rehabilitation
  • Wounds and injuries

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