LoMEF: a framework to produce local explanations for global model time series forecasts

Dilini Rajapaksha, Christoph Bergmeir, Rob J. Hyndman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Global forecasting models (GFMs) that are trained across a set of multiple time series have shown superior results in many forecasting competitions and real-world applications compared with univariate forecasting approaches. One aspect of the popularity of statistical forecasting models such as ETS and ARIMA is their relative simplicity and interpretability (in terms of relevant lags, trend, seasonality, and other attributes), while GFMs typically lack interpretability, especially relating to particular time series. This reduces the trust and confidence of stakeholders when making decisions based on the forecasts without being able to understand the predictions. To mitigate this problem, we propose a novel local model-agnostic interpretability approach to explain the forecasts from GFMs. We train simpler univariate surrogate models that are considered interpretable (e.g., ETS) on the predictions of the GFM on samples within a neighbourhood that we obtain through bootstrapping, or straightforwardly as the one-step-ahead global black-box model forecasts of the time series which needs to be explained. After, we evaluate the explanations for the forecasts of the global models in both qualitative and quantitative aspects such as accuracy, fidelity, stability, and comprehensibility, and are able to show the benefits of our approach.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1424-1447
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Journal of Forecasting
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • Bootstrapping
  • Explainability
  • Global models
  • Local interpretability
  • Time series forecasting

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