Liverpool Telescope follow-up of candidate electromagnetic counterparts during the first run of Advanced LIGO

C. M. Copperwheat, Iain A Steele, A. S. Piascik, D. Bersier, M. F. Bode, C. Collins, M. J. Darnley, Duncan Galloway, Andreja Gomboc, Shunsuke Kobayashi, G. P. Lamb, Andrew J Levan, Paolo A Mazzali, Carole G Mundell, Elena Pian, Don L Pollacco, Danny Steeghs, Nial R Tanvir, K. Ulaczyk, Klass Wiersema

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


The first direct detection of gravitational waves was made in 2015 September with the Advanced LIGO detectors. By prior arrangement, a worldwide collaboration of electromagnetic follow-up observers were notified of candidate gravitational wave events during the first science run, and many facilities were engaged in the search for counterparts. Three alerts were issued to the electromagnetic collaboration over the course of the first science run, which lasted from 2015 September to 2016 January. Two of these alerts were associated with the gravitational wave events since named GW150914 and GW151226. In this paper we provide an overview of the Liverpool Telescope contribution to the follow-up campaign over this period. Given the hundreds of square degree uncertainty in the sky position of any gravitational wave event, efficient searching for candidate counterparts required survey telescopes with large (~degrees) fields of view. The role of the Liverpool Telescope was to provide follow-up classification spectroscopy of any candidates. We followed candidates associated with all three alerts, observing 1, 9 and 17 candidates respectively. We classify the majority of the transients we observed as supernovae. No counterparts were identified, which is in line with expectations given that the events were classified as black hole-black hole mergers. However these searches laid the foundation for similar follow-up campaigns in future gravitational wave detector science runs, in which the detection of neutron star merger events with observable electromagnetic counterparts is much more likely.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3528-3536
Number of pages9
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 11 Nov 2016


  • Gravitational waves
  • Methods: data analysis
  • Techniques: spectroscopic

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