LiTFSI-free spiro-OMeTAD-based perovskite solar cells with power conversion efficiencies exceeding 19%

Boer Tan, Sonia R. Raga, Anthony S.R. Chesman, Sebastian O. Fürer, Fei Zheng, David P. McMeekin, Liangcong Jiang, Wenxin Mao, Xiongfeng Lin, Xiaoming Wen, Jianfeng Lu, Yi Bing Cheng, Udo Bach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

To date, the most efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs) employ an n–i–p device architecture that uses a 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) hole-transporting material (HTM), which achieves optimum conductivity with the addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) and air exposure. However, this additive along with its oxidation process leads to poor reproducibility and is detrimental to stability. Herein, a dicationic salt spiro-OMeTAD(TFSI)2, is employed as an effective p-dopant to achieve power conversion efficiencies of 19.3% and 18.3% (apertures of 0.16 and 1.00 cm2) with excellent reproducibility in the absence of LiTFSI and air exposure. As far as it is known, these are the highest-performing n–i–p PSCs without LiTFSI or air exposure. Comprehensive analysis demonstrates that precise control of the proportion of [spiro-OMeTAD]+ directly provides high conductivity in HTM films with low series resistance, fast hole extraction, and lower interfacial charge recombination. Moreover, the spiro-OMeTAD(TFSI)2-doped devices show improved stability, benefitting from well-retained HTM morphology without forming aggregates or voids when tested under an ambient atmosphere. A facile approach is presented to fabricate highly efficient PSCs by replacing LiTFSI with spiro-OMeTAD(TFSI)2. Furthermore, this study provides an insight into the relationship between device performance and the HTM doping level.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1901519
Number of pages10
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Volume9
Issue number32
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Aug 2019

Keywords

  • high performance
  • hole-transporting material
  • LiTFSI-free
  • p-doping
  • perovskite solar cells

Cite this

Tan, Boer ; Raga, Sonia R. ; Chesman, Anthony S.R. ; Fürer, Sebastian O. ; Zheng, Fei ; McMeekin, David P. ; Jiang, Liangcong ; Mao, Wenxin ; Lin, Xiongfeng ; Wen, Xiaoming ; Lu, Jianfeng ; Cheng, Yi Bing ; Bach, Udo. / LiTFSI-free spiro-OMeTAD-based perovskite solar cells with power conversion efficiencies exceeding 19%. In: Advanced Energy Materials. 2019 ; Vol. 9, No. 32.
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title = "LiTFSI-free spiro-OMeTAD-based perovskite solar cells with power conversion efficiencies exceeding 19{\%}",
abstract = "To date, the most efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs) employ an n–i–p device architecture that uses a 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) hole-transporting material (HTM), which achieves optimum conductivity with the addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) and air exposure. However, this additive along with its oxidation process leads to poor reproducibility and is detrimental to stability. Herein, a dicationic salt spiro-OMeTAD(TFSI)2, is employed as an effective p-dopant to achieve power conversion efficiencies of 19.3{\%} and 18.3{\%} (apertures of 0.16 and 1.00 cm2) with excellent reproducibility in the absence of LiTFSI and air exposure. As far as it is known, these are the highest-performing n–i–p PSCs without LiTFSI or air exposure. Comprehensive analysis demonstrates that precise control of the proportion of [spiro-OMeTAD]+ directly provides high conductivity in HTM films with low series resistance, fast hole extraction, and lower interfacial charge recombination. Moreover, the spiro-OMeTAD(TFSI)2-doped devices show improved stability, benefitting from well-retained HTM morphology without forming aggregates or voids when tested under an ambient atmosphere. A facile approach is presented to fabricate highly efficient PSCs by replacing LiTFSI with spiro-OMeTAD(TFSI)2. Furthermore, this study provides an insight into the relationship between device performance and the HTM doping level.",
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author = "Boer Tan and Raga, {Sonia R.} and Chesman, {Anthony S.R.} and F{\"u}rer, {Sebastian O.} and Fei Zheng and McMeekin, {David P.} and Liangcong Jiang and Wenxin Mao and Xiongfeng Lin and Xiaoming Wen and Jianfeng Lu and Cheng, {Yi Bing} and Udo Bach",
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language = "English",
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LiTFSI-free spiro-OMeTAD-based perovskite solar cells with power conversion efficiencies exceeding 19%. / Tan, Boer; Raga, Sonia R.; Chesman, Anthony S.R.; Fürer, Sebastian O.; Zheng, Fei; McMeekin, David P.; Jiang, Liangcong; Mao, Wenxin; Lin, Xiongfeng; Wen, Xiaoming; Lu, Jianfeng; Cheng, Yi Bing; Bach, Udo.

In: Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 9, No. 32, 1901519, 28.08.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - LiTFSI-free spiro-OMeTAD-based perovskite solar cells with power conversion efficiencies exceeding 19%

AU - Tan, Boer

AU - Raga, Sonia R.

AU - Chesman, Anthony S.R.

AU - Fürer, Sebastian O.

AU - Zheng, Fei

AU - McMeekin, David P.

AU - Jiang, Liangcong

AU - Mao, Wenxin

AU - Lin, Xiongfeng

AU - Wen, Xiaoming

AU - Lu, Jianfeng

AU - Cheng, Yi Bing

AU - Bach, Udo

PY - 2019/8/28

Y1 - 2019/8/28

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AB - To date, the most efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs) employ an n–i–p device architecture that uses a 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) hole-transporting material (HTM), which achieves optimum conductivity with the addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) and air exposure. However, this additive along with its oxidation process leads to poor reproducibility and is detrimental to stability. Herein, a dicationic salt spiro-OMeTAD(TFSI)2, is employed as an effective p-dopant to achieve power conversion efficiencies of 19.3% and 18.3% (apertures of 0.16 and 1.00 cm2) with excellent reproducibility in the absence of LiTFSI and air exposure. As far as it is known, these are the highest-performing n–i–p PSCs without LiTFSI or air exposure. Comprehensive analysis demonstrates that precise control of the proportion of [spiro-OMeTAD]+ directly provides high conductivity in HTM films with low series resistance, fast hole extraction, and lower interfacial charge recombination. Moreover, the spiro-OMeTAD(TFSI)2-doped devices show improved stability, benefitting from well-retained HTM morphology without forming aggregates or voids when tested under an ambient atmosphere. A facile approach is presented to fabricate highly efficient PSCs by replacing LiTFSI with spiro-OMeTAD(TFSI)2. Furthermore, this study provides an insight into the relationship between device performance and the HTM doping level.

KW - high performance

KW - hole-transporting material

KW - LiTFSI-free

KW - p-doping

KW - perovskite solar cells

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