We investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with lipodystrophy in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Singapore. A standardized questionnaire was administered to 410 consecutive patients (mainly Chinese men), and blood samples were obtained for metabolic measurements for fasting patients. Peripheral fat loss was reported by 46% of subjects, central fat gain was reported by 32%, and 8% of patients overall had a mixed clinical presentation. Levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and lactate were elevated in 19%, 38%, 12%, and 16% of patients, respectively. A mixture of drug-related and non-drug-related factors was associated with these changes. The body-shape changes affected the mood of 36% of patients and the work and/or social activity of 23% of patients, but only <1% of affected subjects reported a desire to stop receipt of antiretroviral therapy because of these changes. We conclude that the prevalence of and factors associated with body-shape changes and metabolic abnormalities in HIV-infected Asian patients are similar to those reported for Western cohorts, but the changes did not appear to have a major psychosocial impact on this patient population.