Using lipidomic methodologies the impact that meal lipid composition and metabolic syndrome (MetS) exerts on the postprandial chylomicron triacylglycerol (TAG) response was examined. Males (9 control; 11 MetS) participated in a randomised crossover trial ingesting two high fat breakfast meals composed of either dairy-based foods or vegetable oil-based foods. The postprandial lipidomic molecular composition of the TAG in the chylomicron-rich (CM) fraction was analysed with tandem mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography to profile CM TAG species and targeted TAG regioisomers. Postprandial CM TAG concentrations were significantly lower after the dairy-based foods compared with the vegetable oil-based foods for both control and MetS subjects. The CM TAG response to the ingested meals involved both significant and differential depletion of TAG species containing shorter- and medium-chain fatty acids (FA) and enrichment of TAG molecular species containing C16 and C18 saturated, monounsaturated and diunsaturated FA. Furthermore, there were significant changes in the TAG species between the food TAG and CM TAG and between the 3- and 5-h postprandial samples for the CM TAG regioisomers. Unexpectedly, the postprandial CM TAG concentration and CM TAG lipidomic responses did not differ between the control and MetS subjects. Lipidomic analysing of CM TAG molecular species revealed dynamic changes in the molecular species of CM TAG during the postprandial phase suggesting either preferential CM TAG species formation and/or clearance.