Although lifestyle interventions are commonly recommended in the management of patients with chronic gout, the evidence from trial
data for their benefits and safety has not been previously examined in a systematic review.
The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the benefits and safety of lifestyle interventions for the treatment of people with
We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE for studies on 5 April 2013.
We also searched the 2010 to 2011 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League against Rheumatism (EULAR)
abstracts and performed a handsearch of the reference lists of included articles.
Studies were included if they were randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs or CCTs) which compared lifestyle
interventions to another therapy (active or placebo) in patients with chronic gout. Outcomes of interest were changes in gout attack
frequency, joint pain, serum urate levels, tophus size, function, quality of life and adverse effects.
Data collection and analysis
Two review authors independently applied methods recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration for the selection, appraisal, data
collection and synthesis of studies. We assessed the quality of the body of evidence for each outcome using the GRADE approach.
Only one study (120 participants), at moderate risk of bias, was included in the review. Patients were randomised to one of three
interventions: either skim milk powder (SMP) enriched with glycomacropeptide (GMP) and G600, non-enriched SMP or lactose
powder, over a three-month period. The frequency of acute gout attacks, measured as the number of flares per month, decreased in all
three groups over the three-month study period. Low quality evidence indicated that there was no difference between the SMP/GMP/G600 group and combined control groups (SMP and lactos