Lifestyle factors and macro- and micro-vascular complications among people with type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia

Mohammed J. Alramadan, Dianna J. Magliano, Hassan Ahmad Alhamrani, Ameerah J. Alramadan, Sara M. Alameer, Ghada Mohammed Amin, Wed A. Alkharras, Nour A. Bayaseh, Baki Billah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Aims: The aim of this study is to identify lifestyle factors that place people with type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia at a greater risk of macro- and microvascular complications. Methods: A survey was conducted among adults with type 2 diabetes who attended diabetes centres in three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Participants were interviewed and their medical files were reviewed for lab test results and documented comorbidities. Associations between complication and lifestyle factors were assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 1121 participants were recruited. Mean age was 57.6 (±11.1) years. The prevalence of coronary artery disease, diabetic foot, and stroke was 17.0%, 13.1% and 3.7%, and that of neuropathy, renal impairment, and retinopathy was 20.3%, 14.5%, and 42.8% respectively. Lifestyle factors associated with one or more of the complications were inadequate physical activity, longer sitting time, obesity, current or past smoking, passive smoking, hypertension, poor glycaemic control, low HDL and high triglycerides. Conclusions: Diabetes complications are common among people with type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia. Life style factors such as inadequate physical activity, longer sitting time, obesity, smoking, hypertension, and poor control of blood glucose and lipids should be assimilated into complications prevention program.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)484-491
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019


  • Coronary artery disease
  • Diabetes
  • Diabetic foot
  • Neuropathy
  • Renal impairment
  • Retinopathy
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Stroke

Cite this