Singapore is a city-state with limited land space and resources, and most construction materials are imported from foreign countries. In this study, a detailed whole building life cycle assessment (LCA) of a base case building in Singapore as well as material LCA were conducted with customized life cycle inventory datasets by considering materials importation and transportation in particular, and by considering the effects of adopting local recycled aggregates. Results showed that importation and transportation of construction materials significantly alter environmental impacts. This highlights the necessity of considering transportation for importing materials in Singapore context. Inclusion of local recycled aggregates for concrete production to reduce potential environmental load is significant. This suggests adoption of local recycled aggregates is an important strategy for the development of sustainable construction in Singapore.
- Construction and demolition waste (C&DW)
- Life cycle assessment (LCA)
- Life cycle inventory (LCI)
- Material importation and transportation
- Recycled aggregates