alphabetaTCR(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative (DN) T regulatory (Treg) cells have recently been shown to suppress antigen-specific immune responses mediated by CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells in mice and humans. In this study, we developed a system to expand DN Treg cells for transplantation therapy that exclusively uses recipient-derived immune cells and confers a high degree of safety as the protocol does not involve the direct injection of lentiviral vectors. Recipient-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were transduced with lentiviral vectors that express major histocompatibility complex class I L(d) antigen (LV-L(d)), which is expressed by the donor graft but is allogeneic to the graft recipient. LV-L(d)-transduced mature DCs (mDCs) were able to expand effectively both FcRgamma(-/-) and FcRgamma(+/+) DN T cells. After expansion with LV-L(d)-transduced mDCs, only the FcRgamma(+/+) DN Treg cells maintained their ability to suppress CD8(+) T cells in vitro. In addition, adoptive transfer of the FcRgamma(+/+) ex vivo expanded DN Treg cells significantly prolonged the survival of L(d+) skin grafts. This study is the first description of successful ex vivo expansion of antigen-specific DN Treg cells using genetically modified syngeneic DCs for adoptive immunotherapy and demonstrates that although FcRgamma(-/-) DN T cells can be expanded, they do not gain regulatory ability.