LDL receptor blockade reduces mortality in a mouse model of ischaemic stroke without improving tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced brain haemorrhage: Towards pre-clinical simulation of symptomatic ICH

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Abstract

Background: Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH) following tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) administration is the most feared and lethal complication of thrombolytic therapy for ischaemic stroke, creating a significant obstacle for a broader uptake of this beneficial treatment. rt-PA also undermines cerebral vasculature stability in a multimodal process which involves engagement with LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1), potentially underlying the development of sICH. Aims and methods: We aimed to simulate rt-PA-induced haemorrhagic transformation (HT) in a mouse model of stroke and to assess if it drives symptomatic neurological deterioration and whether it is attenuated by LDL receptor blockade. rt-PA (10mg/kg) or its vehicle, with or without the LDL receptor antagonist, receptor-associated protein (RAP; 2mg/kg), were intravenously injected at reperfusion after 0.5 or 4h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Albumin and haemoglobin content were measured in the perfused mouse brains 24h post MCAo as indications of blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise and HT, respectively. Results: rt-PA did not elevate brain albumin and haemoglobin levels in sham mice or in mice subjected to 0.5h MCAo. In contrast, administration of rt-PA after prolonged MCAo (4h) caused a marked increase in HT (but similar changes in brain albumin) compared to vehicle, mimicking the clinical shift from a safe to detrimental intervention. Interestingly, this HT did not correlate with functional deficit severity at 24h, suggesting that it does not play a symptomatic role in our mouse stroke model. Co-administration of RAP with or without rt-PA reduced mortality and neurological scores but did not effectively decrease brain albumin and haemoglobin levels. Conclusion: Despite the proven causative relationship between severe HT and neurological deterioration in human stroke, rt-PA-triggered HT in mouse MCAo does not contribute to neurological deficit or simulate sICH. Model limitations, such as the long duration of occlusion required, the type of HT achieved and the timing of deficit assessment may account for this mismatch. Our results further suggest that blockade of LDL receptors improves stroke outcome irrespective of rt-PA, blood-brain barrier breakdown and HT.

Original languageEnglish
Article number33
Number of pages11
JournalFluids and Barriers of the CNS
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Nov 2017

Keywords

  • Blood-brain barrier
  • MCAo
  • Receptor-associated protein
  • Stroke
  • Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage
  • Tissue-type plasminogen activator

Cite this

@article{15dada886a47464a8364ba056b5ca360,
title = "LDL receptor blockade reduces mortality in a mouse model of ischaemic stroke without improving tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced brain haemorrhage: Towards pre-clinical simulation of symptomatic ICH",
abstract = "Background: Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH) following tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) administration is the most feared and lethal complication of thrombolytic therapy for ischaemic stroke, creating a significant obstacle for a broader uptake of this beneficial treatment. rt-PA also undermines cerebral vasculature stability in a multimodal process which involves engagement with LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1), potentially underlying the development of sICH. Aims and methods: We aimed to simulate rt-PA-induced haemorrhagic transformation (HT) in a mouse model of stroke and to assess if it drives symptomatic neurological deterioration and whether it is attenuated by LDL receptor blockade. rt-PA (10mg/kg) or its vehicle, with or without the LDL receptor antagonist, receptor-associated protein (RAP; 2mg/kg), were intravenously injected at reperfusion after 0.5 or 4h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Albumin and haemoglobin content were measured in the perfused mouse brains 24h post MCAo as indications of blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise and HT, respectively. Results: rt-PA did not elevate brain albumin and haemoglobin levels in sham mice or in mice subjected to 0.5h MCAo. In contrast, administration of rt-PA after prolonged MCAo (4h) caused a marked increase in HT (but similar changes in brain albumin) compared to vehicle, mimicking the clinical shift from a safe to detrimental intervention. Interestingly, this HT did not correlate with functional deficit severity at 24h, suggesting that it does not play a symptomatic role in our mouse stroke model. Co-administration of RAP with or without rt-PA reduced mortality and neurological scores but did not effectively decrease brain albumin and haemoglobin levels. Conclusion: Despite the proven causative relationship between severe HT and neurological deterioration in human stroke, rt-PA-triggered HT in mouse MCAo does not contribute to neurological deficit or simulate sICH. Model limitations, such as the long duration of occlusion required, the type of HT achieved and the timing of deficit assessment may account for this mismatch. Our results further suggest that blockade of LDL receptors improves stroke outcome irrespective of rt-PA, blood-brain barrier breakdown and HT.",
keywords = "Blood-brain barrier, MCAo, Receptor-associated protein, Stroke, Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage, Tissue-type plasminogen activator",
author = "Be'eri Niego and Broughton, {Brad R.S.} and Heidi Ho and Sobey, {Christopher G.} and Medcalf, {Robert L.}",
year = "2017",
month = "11",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1186/s12987-017-0081-2",
language = "English",
volume = "14",
journal = "Fluids and Barriers of the CNS",
issn = "2045-8118",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - LDL receptor blockade reduces mortality in a mouse model of ischaemic stroke without improving tissue-type plasminogen activator-induced brain haemorrhage

T2 - Towards pre-clinical simulation of symptomatic ICH

AU - Niego, Be'eri

AU - Broughton, Brad R.S.

AU - Ho, Heidi

AU - Sobey, Christopher G.

AU - Medcalf, Robert L.

PY - 2017/11/21

Y1 - 2017/11/21

N2 - Background: Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH) following tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) administration is the most feared and lethal complication of thrombolytic therapy for ischaemic stroke, creating a significant obstacle for a broader uptake of this beneficial treatment. rt-PA also undermines cerebral vasculature stability in a multimodal process which involves engagement with LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1), potentially underlying the development of sICH. Aims and methods: We aimed to simulate rt-PA-induced haemorrhagic transformation (HT) in a mouse model of stroke and to assess if it drives symptomatic neurological deterioration and whether it is attenuated by LDL receptor blockade. rt-PA (10mg/kg) or its vehicle, with or without the LDL receptor antagonist, receptor-associated protein (RAP; 2mg/kg), were intravenously injected at reperfusion after 0.5 or 4h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Albumin and haemoglobin content were measured in the perfused mouse brains 24h post MCAo as indications of blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise and HT, respectively. Results: rt-PA did not elevate brain albumin and haemoglobin levels in sham mice or in mice subjected to 0.5h MCAo. In contrast, administration of rt-PA after prolonged MCAo (4h) caused a marked increase in HT (but similar changes in brain albumin) compared to vehicle, mimicking the clinical shift from a safe to detrimental intervention. Interestingly, this HT did not correlate with functional deficit severity at 24h, suggesting that it does not play a symptomatic role in our mouse stroke model. Co-administration of RAP with or without rt-PA reduced mortality and neurological scores but did not effectively decrease brain albumin and haemoglobin levels. Conclusion: Despite the proven causative relationship between severe HT and neurological deterioration in human stroke, rt-PA-triggered HT in mouse MCAo does not contribute to neurological deficit or simulate sICH. Model limitations, such as the long duration of occlusion required, the type of HT achieved and the timing of deficit assessment may account for this mismatch. Our results further suggest that blockade of LDL receptors improves stroke outcome irrespective of rt-PA, blood-brain barrier breakdown and HT.

AB - Background: Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH) following tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) administration is the most feared and lethal complication of thrombolytic therapy for ischaemic stroke, creating a significant obstacle for a broader uptake of this beneficial treatment. rt-PA also undermines cerebral vasculature stability in a multimodal process which involves engagement with LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1), potentially underlying the development of sICH. Aims and methods: We aimed to simulate rt-PA-induced haemorrhagic transformation (HT) in a mouse model of stroke and to assess if it drives symptomatic neurological deterioration and whether it is attenuated by LDL receptor blockade. rt-PA (10mg/kg) or its vehicle, with or without the LDL receptor antagonist, receptor-associated protein (RAP; 2mg/kg), were intravenously injected at reperfusion after 0.5 or 4h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Albumin and haemoglobin content were measured in the perfused mouse brains 24h post MCAo as indications of blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise and HT, respectively. Results: rt-PA did not elevate brain albumin and haemoglobin levels in sham mice or in mice subjected to 0.5h MCAo. In contrast, administration of rt-PA after prolonged MCAo (4h) caused a marked increase in HT (but similar changes in brain albumin) compared to vehicle, mimicking the clinical shift from a safe to detrimental intervention. Interestingly, this HT did not correlate with functional deficit severity at 24h, suggesting that it does not play a symptomatic role in our mouse stroke model. Co-administration of RAP with or without rt-PA reduced mortality and neurological scores but did not effectively decrease brain albumin and haemoglobin levels. Conclusion: Despite the proven causative relationship between severe HT and neurological deterioration in human stroke, rt-PA-triggered HT in mouse MCAo does not contribute to neurological deficit or simulate sICH. Model limitations, such as the long duration of occlusion required, the type of HT achieved and the timing of deficit assessment may account for this mismatch. Our results further suggest that blockade of LDL receptors improves stroke outcome irrespective of rt-PA, blood-brain barrier breakdown and HT.

KW - Blood-brain barrier

KW - MCAo

KW - Receptor-associated protein

KW - Stroke

KW - Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage

KW - Tissue-type plasminogen activator

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U2 - 10.1186/s12987-017-0081-2

DO - 10.1186/s12987-017-0081-2

M3 - Article

VL - 14

JO - Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

JF - Fluids and Barriers of the CNS

SN - 2045-8118

IS - 1

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ER -