Late toxicity and biochemical control in 554 prostate cancer patients treated with and without dose escalated image guided radiotherapy

David Kok, Suki Gill, Mathias Bressel, Keelan Byrne, Tomas Kron, Chris Fox, Gillian Duchesne, Keen Hun Tai, Farshad Foroudi

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45 Citations (Scopus)


Background and purpose To compare rates of late gastrointestinal toxicity, late genitourinary toxicity and biochemical failure between patients treated for prostate cancer with implanted fiducial marker image guided radiotherapy (FMIGRT), and those treated without FMIGRT. Methods and materials We performed a single institution retrospective study comparing all 311 patients who received 74 Gy without fiducial markers in 2006 versus all 243 patients who received our updated regimen of 78 Gy with FMIGRT in 2008. Patient records were reviewed 27 months after completing radiotherapy. Biochemical failure was defined using the Phoenix definition. Details of late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities were graded according to CTCAEv4. Moderate/severe toxicity was defined as a grade 2 or higher toxicity. Cumulative incidence and prevalence curves for moderate/severe toxicity were constructed and compared using multistate modeling while biochemical failure free survival was compared using the log rank test. A Cox regression model was developed to correct for confounding factors. Results Median follow-up time for both groups was 22 months. The hazard ratio for moderate/severe late gastrointestinal toxicity in the non-FMIGRT group was 3.66 [95% CI (1.63-8.23), p = 0.003] compared to patients in the FMIGRT group. There was no difference in the hazard ratio of moderate/severe late genitourinary toxicity between the two groups (0.44 [95% CI (0.19-1.00)]), but patients treated with FMIGRT did have a quicker recovery from their genitourinary toxicities HR = 0.24 [95% CI (0.10-0.59)]. We were unable to detect any differences in biochemical failure free survival between the cohorts HR = 0.60 [95% CI (0.30-1.20), p = 0.143]. Conclusion Despite dose escalation, the use of FMIGRT in radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer significantly reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal toxicity and the duration of late genitourinary toxicity when compared to conventional non-FMIGRT techniques. 

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)140-146
Number of pages7
JournalRadiotherapy and Oncology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - May 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Dose escalation
  • Fiducial markers
  • IGRT
  • Late toxicity
  • Prostate cancer

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