Laser-Grafted Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for the Detection of Histamine from Organocatalyzed Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization

Gijs Ramakers, Gideon Wackers, Vanessa Trouillet, Alexander Welle, Patrick Wagner, Tanja Junkers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


To be applicable to in vivo measuring, molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based sensors need to have high reproducibility, require miniaturization, and must be free of toxic materials (such as heavy metals). To address these requirements, a metal-free photo atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) grafting procedure is described using a pulsed UV laser as light source to create thin molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) films (∼10 nm thickness) on a sensor surface. Analysis via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) revealed the composition of the polymer film and the necessity for an excess of functional monomer to ensure its incorporation are demonstrated. MIP films were templated toward the target molecule histamine, for which in vivo studies can reveal unknown pathological pathways of inflammatory bowel diseases. By use of impedance spectroscopy, the biosensor surface is characterized in comparison to nonimprinted film grafts, and a high selectivity and sensitivity toward the target molecule are identified, revealing a histamine concentration limit of detection of 3.4 nM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2304-2313
Number of pages10
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 26 Mar 2019

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