Large-volume stacking with polarity switching and sweeping for chlorophenols and chlorophenoxy acids in capillary electrophoresis

Janpen Kruaysawat, Philip J. Marriott, Jeff Hughes, Craige Trenerry

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22 Citations (Scopus)


This paper describes approaches for stacking large volumes of sample solutions containing a mixture of chlorophenols and chlorophenoxyacetic acids as their anions in capillary zone electrophoresis, and compares results to standard capillary electrophoresis (CE) and normal stacking modes. In order to increase the amount of sample injected beyond the optimal conditions and maintain high resolution, the sample introduction buffer must be removed after the stacking process is completed. This is achieved by pumping the sample buffer out of the column using polarity switching. Large sample volumes are loaded by hydrodynamic injection, then stacked at the injection buffer/run electrolyte interface, followed by the removal of the large plug of low-conductivity sample matrix from the capillary column using polarity switching and finally the separation of the stacked anions in a basic buffer (pH 8.65). Around 10- and 40-fold improvement of sensitivity was achieved by normal stacking and large-volume stacking with polarity switching, respectively, when compared to the standard CE analysis. Sweeping-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) was also investigated for the purpose of comparison to the stacking technique. The method should be suitable for the analysis of these chemical compound classes in industrial chlorophenoxyacetic acid manufacture.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2180-2187
Number of pages8
Issue number12-13
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Anion
  • Chlorophenol
  • Chlorophenoxyacetic acid
  • Large-volume stacking
  • Normal stacking
  • Sweeping-micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography

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