Purpose: This study is aimed to identify genes within the KRAS genomic amplicon that are both coupregulated and essential for cell proliferation when KRAS is amplified in lung cancer. Experimental Design: We used an integrated genomic approach to identify genes that are coamplified with KRAS in lung adenocarcinomas and subsequently preformed an RNA interference (RNAi) screen to uncover functionally relevant genes. The role of lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) was subsequently investigated both in vitro and in vivo by siRNA and short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown in a panel of lung adenocarcinoma cells lines. LDHB expression was also investigated in patient tumors using microarray and immunohistochemistry analyses. Results: RNAi-mediated depletion of LDHB abrogated cell proliferation both in vitro and in xenografted tumors in vivo. We find that LDHB expression correlates to both KRAS genomic copy number gain and KRAS mutation in lung cancer cell lines and adenocarcinomas. This correlation between LDHB expression and KRAS status is specific for lung cancers and not other tumor types that harbor KRAS mutations. Consistent with a role for LDHB in glycolysis and tumor metabolism, KRAS-mutant lung tumors exhibit elevated expression of a glycolysis gene signature and are more dependent on glycolysis for proliferation compared with KRAS wild-type lung tumors. Finally, high LDHB expression was a significant predictor of shorter survival in patients with lung adenocarcinomas. Conclusion: This study identifies LDHB as a regulator of cell proliferation in a subset of lung adenocarcinoma and may provide a novel therapeutic approach for treating lung cancer.