Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward pre-diabetes among the public, patients with pre-diabetes and healthcare professionals: a systematic review

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The prevalence of pre-diabetes is increasing globally, affecting an estimated 552 million people by 2030. While lifestyle interventions are the first line of defense against progression toward diabetes, information on barriers toward pre-diabetes management and how to overcome these barriers are scarce. This systematic review describes the publics' and healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) toward pre-diabetes and determines the barriers toward pre-diabetes management. A systematic search for studies examining KAP towards pre-diabetes was conducted in six databases from inception to September 2022. Studies that quantitatively assessed at least two KAP elements using questionnaires were included. The quality of studies was assessed using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Barriers and enablers were identified and mapped onto the Capability, Motivation, and Behaviour model to identify factors that influence behavior change. Twenty-one articles that surveyed 8876 participants were included in this review. Most of the reviews (n=13) were directed to healthcare professionals. Overall, positive attitudes toward diabetes prevention efforts were observed, although there were still knowledge deficits and poor behavior toward pre-diabetes management. Barriers and enablers were detected at patients (eg, goals and intention), healthcare professionals (eg, clinical judgement) and system (eg, access and resources) levels. The use of different survey instruments to assess KAP prevented a head-to-head comparison between studies. Most studies conducted among patients were from middle-income countries, while among healthcare professionals (HCPs) were from high-income countries, which may produce some biasness. Nevertheless, the development of pre-diabetes intervention should focus on: (1) increasing knowledge on pre-diabetes and its management; (2) imparting practical skills to manage pre-diabetes; (3) providing resources for lifestyle management; (4) improving the accessibility of lifestyle management programs; and (5) other HCPs and human support to pre-diabetes management.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere003203
Number of pages10
JournalBMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Health Behavior
  • Knowledge
  • Life Style
  • Prediabetic State

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