KLK5 Inactivation Reverses Cutaneous Hallmarks of Netherton Syndrome

Laetitia Furio, Georgios Pampalakis, Iacovos P. Michael, Andras Nagy, Georgia Sotiropoulou, Alain Hovnanian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Netherton Syndrome (NS) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive skin disease which can be life-threatening in infants. The disease is characterized by extensive skin desquamation, inflammation, allergic manifestations and hair shaft defects. NS is caused by loss-of-function mutations in SPINK5 encoding the LEKTI serine protease inhibitor. LEKTI deficiency results in unopposed activities of kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) and aberrantly increased proteolysis in the epidermis. Spink5-/- mice recapitulate the NS phenotype, display enhanced epidermal Klk5 and Klk7 protease activities and die within a few hours after birth because of a severe skin barrier defect. However the contribution of these various proteases in the physiopathology remains to be determined. In this study, we developed a new murine model in which Klk5 and Spink5 were both knocked out to assess whether Klk5 deletion is sufficient to reverse the NS phenotype in Spink5-/- mice. By repeated intercrossing between Klk5-/- mice with Spink5-/- mice, we generated Spink5-/-Klk5-/- animals. We showed that Klk5 knock-out in Lekti-deficient newborn mice rescues neonatal lethality, reverses the severe skin barrier defect, restores epidermal structure and prevents skin inflammation. Specifically, using in situ zymography and specific protease substrates, we showed that Klk5 knockout reduced epidermal proteolytic activity, particularly its downstream targets proteases KLK7, KLK14 and ELA2. By immunostaining, western blot, histology and electron microscopy analyses, we provide evidence that desmosomes and corneodesmosomes remain intact and that epidermal differentiation is restored in Spink5-/-Klk5-/-. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses and immunostainings revealed absence of inflammation and allergy in Spink5-/-Klk5-/- skin. Notably, Il-1β, Il17A and Tslp levels were normalized. Our results provide in vivo evidence that KLK5 knockout is sufficient to reverse NS-like symptoms manifested in Spink5-/- skin. These findings illustrate the crucial role of protease regulation in skin homeostasis and inflammation, and establish KLK5 inhibition as a major therapeutic target for NS.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1005389
Number of pages20
JournalPLoS Genetics
Volume11
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Sep 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • mouse models
  • inflammation
  • epidermis
  • proteases
  • neonates
  • immunostaining
  • nuclear staining
  • inflammatory diseases

Cite this

Furio, L., Pampalakis, G., Michael, I. P., Nagy, A., Sotiropoulou, G., & Hovnanian, A. (2015). KLK5 Inactivation Reverses Cutaneous Hallmarks of Netherton Syndrome. PLoS Genetics, 11(9), [e1005389]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005389
Furio, Laetitia ; Pampalakis, Georgios ; Michael, Iacovos P. ; Nagy, Andras ; Sotiropoulou, Georgia ; Hovnanian, Alain. / KLK5 Inactivation Reverses Cutaneous Hallmarks of Netherton Syndrome. In: PLoS Genetics. 2015 ; Vol. 11, No. 9.
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abstract = "Netherton Syndrome (NS) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive skin disease which can be life-threatening in infants. The disease is characterized by extensive skin desquamation, inflammation, allergic manifestations and hair shaft defects. NS is caused by loss-of-function mutations in SPINK5 encoding the LEKTI serine protease inhibitor. LEKTI deficiency results in unopposed activities of kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) and aberrantly increased proteolysis in the epidermis. Spink5-/- mice recapitulate the NS phenotype, display enhanced epidermal Klk5 and Klk7 protease activities and die within a few hours after birth because of a severe skin barrier defect. However the contribution of these various proteases in the physiopathology remains to be determined. In this study, we developed a new murine model in which Klk5 and Spink5 were both knocked out to assess whether Klk5 deletion is sufficient to reverse the NS phenotype in Spink5-/- mice. By repeated intercrossing between Klk5-/- mice with Spink5-/- mice, we generated Spink5-/-Klk5-/- animals. We showed that Klk5 knock-out in Lekti-deficient newborn mice rescues neonatal lethality, reverses the severe skin barrier defect, restores epidermal structure and prevents skin inflammation. Specifically, using in situ zymography and specific protease substrates, we showed that Klk5 knockout reduced epidermal proteolytic activity, particularly its downstream targets proteases KLK7, KLK14 and ELA2. By immunostaining, western blot, histology and electron microscopy analyses, we provide evidence that desmosomes and corneodesmosomes remain intact and that epidermal differentiation is restored in Spink5-/-Klk5-/-. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses and immunostainings revealed absence of inflammation and allergy in Spink5-/-Klk5-/- skin. Notably, Il-1β, Il17A and Tslp levels were normalized. Our results provide in vivo evidence that KLK5 knockout is sufficient to reverse NS-like symptoms manifested in Spink5-/- skin. These findings illustrate the crucial role of protease regulation in skin homeostasis and inflammation, and establish KLK5 inhibition as a major therapeutic target for NS.",
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Furio, L, Pampalakis, G, Michael, IP, Nagy, A, Sotiropoulou, G & Hovnanian, A 2015, 'KLK5 Inactivation Reverses Cutaneous Hallmarks of Netherton Syndrome' PLoS Genetics, vol. 11, no. 9, e1005389. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005389

KLK5 Inactivation Reverses Cutaneous Hallmarks of Netherton Syndrome. / Furio, Laetitia; Pampalakis, Georgios; Michael, Iacovos P.; Nagy, Andras; Sotiropoulou, Georgia; Hovnanian, Alain.

In: PLoS Genetics, Vol. 11, No. 9, e1005389, 21.09.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - KLK5 Inactivation Reverses Cutaneous Hallmarks of Netherton Syndrome

AU - Furio, Laetitia

AU - Pampalakis, Georgios

AU - Michael, Iacovos P.

AU - Nagy, Andras

AU - Sotiropoulou, Georgia

AU - Hovnanian, Alain

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N2 - Netherton Syndrome (NS) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive skin disease which can be life-threatening in infants. The disease is characterized by extensive skin desquamation, inflammation, allergic manifestations and hair shaft defects. NS is caused by loss-of-function mutations in SPINK5 encoding the LEKTI serine protease inhibitor. LEKTI deficiency results in unopposed activities of kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) and aberrantly increased proteolysis in the epidermis. Spink5-/- mice recapitulate the NS phenotype, display enhanced epidermal Klk5 and Klk7 protease activities and die within a few hours after birth because of a severe skin barrier defect. However the contribution of these various proteases in the physiopathology remains to be determined. In this study, we developed a new murine model in which Klk5 and Spink5 were both knocked out to assess whether Klk5 deletion is sufficient to reverse the NS phenotype in Spink5-/- mice. By repeated intercrossing between Klk5-/- mice with Spink5-/- mice, we generated Spink5-/-Klk5-/- animals. We showed that Klk5 knock-out in Lekti-deficient newborn mice rescues neonatal lethality, reverses the severe skin barrier defect, restores epidermal structure and prevents skin inflammation. Specifically, using in situ zymography and specific protease substrates, we showed that Klk5 knockout reduced epidermal proteolytic activity, particularly its downstream targets proteases KLK7, KLK14 and ELA2. By immunostaining, western blot, histology and electron microscopy analyses, we provide evidence that desmosomes and corneodesmosomes remain intact and that epidermal differentiation is restored in Spink5-/-Klk5-/-. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses and immunostainings revealed absence of inflammation and allergy in Spink5-/-Klk5-/- skin. Notably, Il-1β, Il17A and Tslp levels were normalized. Our results provide in vivo evidence that KLK5 knockout is sufficient to reverse NS-like symptoms manifested in Spink5-/- skin. These findings illustrate the crucial role of protease regulation in skin homeostasis and inflammation, and establish KLK5 inhibition as a major therapeutic target for NS.

AB - Netherton Syndrome (NS) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive skin disease which can be life-threatening in infants. The disease is characterized by extensive skin desquamation, inflammation, allergic manifestations and hair shaft defects. NS is caused by loss-of-function mutations in SPINK5 encoding the LEKTI serine protease inhibitor. LEKTI deficiency results in unopposed activities of kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) and aberrantly increased proteolysis in the epidermis. Spink5-/- mice recapitulate the NS phenotype, display enhanced epidermal Klk5 and Klk7 protease activities and die within a few hours after birth because of a severe skin barrier defect. However the contribution of these various proteases in the physiopathology remains to be determined. In this study, we developed a new murine model in which Klk5 and Spink5 were both knocked out to assess whether Klk5 deletion is sufficient to reverse the NS phenotype in Spink5-/- mice. By repeated intercrossing between Klk5-/- mice with Spink5-/- mice, we generated Spink5-/-Klk5-/- animals. We showed that Klk5 knock-out in Lekti-deficient newborn mice rescues neonatal lethality, reverses the severe skin barrier defect, restores epidermal structure and prevents skin inflammation. Specifically, using in situ zymography and specific protease substrates, we showed that Klk5 knockout reduced epidermal proteolytic activity, particularly its downstream targets proteases KLK7, KLK14 and ELA2. By immunostaining, western blot, histology and electron microscopy analyses, we provide evidence that desmosomes and corneodesmosomes remain intact and that epidermal differentiation is restored in Spink5-/-Klk5-/-. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses and immunostainings revealed absence of inflammation and allergy in Spink5-/-Klk5-/- skin. Notably, Il-1β, Il17A and Tslp levels were normalized. Our results provide in vivo evidence that KLK5 knockout is sufficient to reverse NS-like symptoms manifested in Spink5-/- skin. These findings illustrate the crucial role of protease regulation in skin homeostasis and inflammation, and establish KLK5 inhibition as a major therapeutic target for NS.

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Furio L, Pampalakis G, Michael IP, Nagy A, Sotiropoulou G, Hovnanian A. KLK5 Inactivation Reverses Cutaneous Hallmarks of Netherton Syndrome. PLoS Genetics. 2015 Sep 21;11(9). e1005389. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1005389