Kinetic resolution of the interactions between agrochemical products and adjuvant systems upon mixing

Graham R Webster, Nicole B Bisset, David M. Cahill, Peter Jones, Andrew Killick, Adrian Hawley, Ben J Boyd

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4 Citations (Scopus)


The addition of an adjuvant to a pesticide usually occurs in a mix-tank, before spray application to the crop. Their interaction is potentially crucial to overall efficacy but has received little attention from a physical-chemical perspective. Study was undertaken by laser diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering to resolve these physical processes. It was shown that migration of the pesticide into the adjuvant droplet occurred in all cases studied. The level of transfer was dependent upon adjuvant level, adjuvant solubility, and surfactant level. For suspension pesticides, dissolution of crystallites within the droplet occurred to a degree limited by solubility. The results directly demonstrate the transfer of the pesticide into the adjuvant carrier. This indicates that for emulsion-based pesticides, application to the target is likely as a homogeneously mixed droplet, whereas for suspension pesticides, solubility may limit transfer and dissolution, leading to heterogeneity in the applied particles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6139-6147
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number31
Publication statusPublished - 10 Aug 2016


  • adjuvant
  • mix-tank
  • pesticide
  • transfer

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