Ketamine and xylazine combinations for short-term immobilization of wild variable flying foxes (Pteropus hypomelanus)

A. R. Sohayati, C. M. Zaini, L. Hassan, J. Epstein, A. Siti Suri, Peter Daszak, S. H. Sharifah

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Collection of biological samples from pteropid bats requires chemical restraint of the bats to minimize risks to humans and stress to the bat. The effectiveness of an intravenous combination of ketamine and xylazine for short-term restraint of wild-caught variable flying foxes (Pteropus hypomelanus) in a field situation was evaluated. Eight adult male variable flying foxes were injected intravenously with 0.1 ml of ketamine and xylaxine containing 5 mg of ketamine and 1 mg of xylazine. The mean induction time was 80 ± 20 sec, and mean immobilization time was 26 ± 10 min. The ketamine-xylazine combination used in this study produced effective short-term immobilization of wild variable flying foxes for the collection of biological samples.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)674-676
Number of pages3
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Immobilization
  • Ketamine
  • Pteropus hypomelanus
  • Variable flying fox
  • Xylazine

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