Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) is a phenotype frequently observed in infertile men, and is defined by low spermatozoa number, abnormal spermatozoa morphology and poor motility. We previously showed that a mutation in the Katnb1 gene in mice causes infertility because of OAT. The KATNB1 gene encodes an accessory subunit of the katanin microtubule-severing enzyme complex; this accessory subunit is thought to modulate microtubule-severing location and activity. We hypothesized that KATNB1 may play a role in human spermatogenesis and that genetic variants in KATNB1 could be associated with OAT in humans. Using immunostaining, we defined the localization of the KATNB1 protein in human testes. KATNB1 was present during spermatid development, and in particular localized to the microtubules of the manchette, a structure required for sperm head shaping. To assess a potential association between genetic variants in the KATNB1 gene and infertile men with OAT, we performed direct sequencing of genomic DNA samples from 100 OAT infertile and 100 proven fertile men. Thirty-seven KATNB1 variants were observed, five of which had not previously been described. Ten variants were present only in OAT men, however, statistical analysis did not reveal a significant association with fertility status. Our results suggest that variants in the KATNB1 gene are not commonly associated with OAT infertility in Australian men.