The decidua basalis and placental chorionic villi are critical components of maternal-fetal interface, which plays a critical role in normal placental development. Failure to form a proper maternal-fetal interface is associated with clinically important placental pathologies including preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Placental trophoblast cells are well known for their critical roles in establishing the maternal-fetal interface; however accumulating evidence also implicates mesenchymal stem/stromal cells that envelop the maternal and fetal blood vessels as playing an important role in the formation and efficient functioning of the interface. Moreover, recent studies associate abnormal mesenchymal stem/stromal cell function in the development of preeclampsia. Further research is needed to fully understand the role that these cells play in this clinically important placental pathology. The intimate relationship between maternal and fetal tissues at the interface poses significant problems in the enrichment of decidua basalis and chorionic villous mesenchymal stem/stromal cells without significant cross-contamination. The protocols described below for the enrichment and characterization of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from the maternal-fetal interface produce highly enriched cells that conform to international standards and show minimal cross-contamination.