Involvement of bacteria other than Clostridium difficile in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea

Sarah Larcombe, Melanie L. Hutton, Dena Lyras

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

79 Citations (Scopus)


Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) is a common and unintended consequence of antibiotic use. Clostridium difficile is the most common infectious aetiology of AAD; however, only approximately 25% of all AAD cases are associated with C. difficile infection, with the aetiology in the majority of cases remaining undetermined. Numerous other bacterial infectious agents have been implicated in AAD, including Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella oxytoca. AAD is a complex disease that is influenced by the host, the infectious agent involved, and numerous clinical factors, including antibiotic treatment regimes. This review re-examines AAD and presents current perspectives on this disease, with a particular focus on the current understanding of bacterial causes other than C. difficile and the virulence factors involved in pathogenesis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)463-476
Number of pages14
JournalTrends in Microbiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2016


  • antibiotic-associated diarrhoea
  • bacteria
  • antibiotics
  • antibiotic resistance

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