Investigation on the potential of various biomass waste for the synthesis of carbon material for energy storage application

Brenda Ai-Lian Lim, Steven Lim, Yean Ling Pang, Siew Hoong Shuit, Kam Huei Wong, Jong Boon Ooi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The metal–air battery (MAB) has been a promising technology to store energy, with its outstanding energy density, as well as safety features. Yet, the current material used as air cathode is costly and not easily available. This study investigated a few biomass wastes with good potential, including the oil palm empty fruit bunch and garlic peel, as well as the oil palm frond, to determine a sufficiently environmentally-safe, yet efficient, precursor to produce carbon material as an electro-catalyst for MAB. The precursors were carbonized at different temperatures (450, 600, and 700C) and time (30, 45, and 60 min) followed by chemical (KOH) activation to synthesize the carbon material. The synthesized materials were subsequently studied through chemical, as well as physical characterization. It was found that PF presented superior tunability that can improve electrical conductivity, due to its ability to produce amorphous carbon particles with a smaller size, consisting of hierarchical porous structure, along with a higher specific surface area of up to 777.62 m2g−1, when carbonized at 600C for 60 min. This paper identified that PF has the potential as a sustainable and cost-efficient alternative to carbon nanotube (CNT) as an electro-catalyst for energy storage application, such as MAB.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2919
Number of pages17
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022


  • Biomass waste
  • Carbon particles
  • Electro-catalyst
  • Metal–air battery

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