Ovariectomized ewes were treated with 100 IU insulin, iv, which caused reductions in blood sugar and plasma LH concentrations. The effect was prevented by the infusion (iv) of glucose, suggesting that neuroglycopenia and not a direct action of insulin was the cause of reduced LH secretion.An iv infusion of naloxone (40 mg/h for 2 h), which commenced 25 min before the insulin injection, blocked the inhibitory effect of insulin on LH secretion, but it did not prevent the decrease in plasma glucose concentrations. In this treatment group and in a group treated only with naloxone, the opioid antagonist significantly stimulated LH secretion.To determine whether CRF might be involved in the insulin - induced decrease in LH secretion, 50 µg CRF were injected into ovariectomized sheep. Despite producing very high circulating concentrations of CRF within 2 min of injection and the stimulation of cortisol secretion during most of the 4-h posttreatment period, plasma LH levels were not affected. In addition, the intracerebroventricular administration of 10 µg CRF or 10 µg CRF plus 10 µg arginine vasopressin (AVP) did not affect LH secretion.These observations suggest that insulin-induced hypoglycemia decreased LH secretion by neuroglycopenia. This may involve an opioidergic mechanism, but does not involve activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis.