Investigation of culturable human gut mycobiota from the segamat community in Johor, Malaysia

Marie Andrea Laetitia Huët, Li Wen Wong, Calvin Bok Sun Goh, Md Hamed Hussain, Nazmul Hasan Muzahid, Jacky Dwiyanto, Shaun Wen Huey Lee, Qasim Ayub, Daniel Reidpath, Sui Mae Lee, Sadequr Rahman, Joash Ban Lee Tan

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Abstract: Although several studies have already been carried out in investigating the general profile of the gut mycobiome across several countries, there has yet to be an officially established baseline of a healthy human gut mycobiome, to the best of our knowledge. Microbial composition within the gastrointestinal tract differ across individuals worldwide, and most human gut fungi studies concentrate specifically on individuals from developed countries or diseased cohorts. The present study is the first culture-dependent community study assessing the prevalence and diversity of gut fungi among different ethnic groups from South East Asia. Samples were obtained from a multi-ethnic semi-rural community from Segamat in southern Malaysia. Faecal samples were screened for culturable fungi and questionnaire data analysis was performed. Culturable fungi were present in 45% of the participants’ stool samples. Ethnicity had an impact on fungal prevalence and density in stool samples. The prevalence of resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and 5-fluorocytosine, from the Segamat community, were 14%, 14%, 11% and 7% respectively. It was found that Jakun individuals had lower levels of antifungal resistance irrespective of the drug tested, and male participants had more fluconazole resistant yeast in their stool samples. Two novel point mutations were identified in the ERG11 gene from one azole resistant Candida glabrata, suggesting a possible cause of the occurrence of antifungal resistant isolates in the participant’s faecal sample. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Article number113
Number of pages15
JournalWorld Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • Antifungal resistance
  • Community isolates
  • ERG11 gene mutations
  • Gut mycobiome
  • Yeasts

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