Investigation into coal-based magnetizing roasting of an iron-rich rare earth ore and the associated mineralogical transformations

Nebeal Faris, James Tardio, Rahul Ram, Suresh Bhargava, Mark I. Pownceby

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33 Citations (Scopus)


The factors influencing goethite to magnetite conversion during magnetizing roasting of an iron-rich rare earth ore using coal as the reductant were explored in the present paper. The effect of temperature, time and reductant addition on magnetite conversion; and the optimal conditions which resulted in complete conversion of goethite to magnetite were determined through the use of satmagan and quantitative X-ray diffraction. For this particular ore, optimal roasting conditions were determined to be a roasting temperature of 600–650 °C with the addition of 10–20 wt% coal in the mixture and a roasting time of 90 min. The mineralogical changes occurring during magnetizing roasting were also investigated using X-ray diffraction. Magnetite formation was found to proceed by the reduction of hematite formed from the dehydroxylation of goethite. X-ray diffraction showed that further reaction of magnetite to form wüstite and fayalite had taken place under highly reducing conditions and temperatures exceeding 650 °C. The primary rare earth mineral in this ore, monazite was stable at all roasting conditions whilst florencite underwent thermal decomposition resulting in an increase in the monazite content of the roasted ore.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-49
Number of pages13
JournalMinerals Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Goethite
  • Magnetite
  • Magnetizing roasting
  • Monazite
  • Rare earths

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