Investigating the link between carbon dioxide emissions and transport-related social exclusion in rural Northern Ireland

M. Kamruzzaman, J. Hine, T. Yigitcanlar

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37 Citations (Scopus)


Carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered the most harmful of the greenhouse gases. Despite policy efforts, transport is the only sector experiencing an increase in the level of CO2 emissions and thereby possesses a major threat to sustainable development. In contrast, a reduced level of mobility has been associated with an increasing risk of being socially excluded. However, despite being the two key elements in transport policy, little effort has so far been made to investigate the links between CO2 emissions and social exclusion. This research contributes to this gap by analysing data from 157 weekly activity-travel diaries collected in rural Northern Ireland. CO2 emission levels were calculated using average speed models for different modes of transport. Regression analyses were then conducted to identify the socio-spatial patterns associated with these CO2 emissions, mode choice behaviour, and patterns of participation in activities. This research found that despite emitting a higher level of CO2, groups in rural areas possess the risk of being socially excluded due to their higher levels of mobility.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3463-3478
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Science and Technology
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Activity participation
  • Carbon dioxide (CO) emissions
  • Northern Ireland
  • Sustainable development
  • Sustainable transport
  • Transport disadvantage
  • Travel behaviour

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