This study investigated whether the associations between emotion regulation and cognitive appraisals and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) differ between Asian American and European American trauma survivors. Asian American (n = 103) and European American (n = 104) trauma survivors were recruited through mTurk and completed an on-line questionnaire assessing cognitive appraisals, emotion regulation and PTSD symptomatology. The European American group reported greater trauma-specific rumination, psychological inflexibility, seeking out others for comfort, and negative self-appraisals than the Asian American group. The Asian American group reported greater secondary control appraisals and cultural beliefs about adversity than the European American group. Second, cultural group moderated the associations between (a) brooding rumination, (b) fatalism, (c) self-blame, and (d) negative communal self-appraisals and PTSD symptoms. These associations were larger for the European American group than the Asian American group. Third, there was an indirect pathway from self-construal (independent and interdependent) to PTSD symptoms through certain emotion regulation approaches and cognitive appraisals. Additionally, cultural group was found to moderate several of these indirect effects. These findings highlight the importance of considering cultural background and cultural values in understanding the processes involved in PTSD. Further research in this area is needed.