Invasive meningococcal disease in the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

N. S. Raja, N. Parasakthi, S. D. Puthucheary, A. Kamarulzaman

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13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) remains the leading worldwide cause of acute bacterial meningitis and fatal sepsis in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 cases of N. meningitidis from patients with invasive meningococcal infections in University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur during the years 1987-2004 were reviewed together with details of age, sex, disease, risk factors treatment and outcome of these patients. Results: Their ages ranged from 10 months to 64 years (median age 29.75 years). The male to female ratio was 1.42:1. Fever, neck stiffness, headache, vomiting and confusion were predominant symptoms. Upper respiratory tract viral infection and Hajj pilgrimage were directly associated with invasive meningococcal disease. Penicillin or ceftriaxone or both in some cases were administered as empirical therapy. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol and rifampicin. The case fatality ratio was 1:4. One Hajj pilgrim died despite having received polyvalent meningococcal vaccine. Amongst the survivors, two patients had neurological deficit, hearing loss and arthritis. Conclusion: Early antimicrobial therapy has been shown to reduce these adverse outcomes. Clinicians need to be alerted to the presence of the disease in the community and the disease should be made notifiable within 24 hours of detection both for early treatment of cases and to facilitate contact tracing, institution of prophylactic treatment and prevention of secondary cases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-29
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Postgraduate Medicine
Volume52
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2006
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bacterial meningitis
  • Meningococcal meningitis
  • Neisseria meningitidis

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