The concept that androgens regulate multiple aspects of adipose tissue metabolism in women is based on studies of women with pathological androgen excess and in vitro studies generally using supraphysiological androgen concentrations. We investigated whether in women with normal-range serum testosterone, relationships exist between serum androgens and expression of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-6, CD68), anti-inflammatory (adiponectin), and lipid metabolic (lipoprotein lipase, hormone sensitive lipase) genes in omental adipose tissue, and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We studied obese women undergoing laparoscopic gastric band surgery (premenopausal, regular menses, nondiabetic, serum testosterone <2.5 nmol/L, n = 27). Gene expression was measured in omental adipose tissue. Liver biopsies were examined in 22 participants.